Nowok, B., Kupiszewska, D., & Poulain, M. (2006). Full Bio >, Elizabeth Collett was Director of Migration Policy Institute Europe and Senior Advisor to MPI's Transatlantic Council on Migration. 2011). Migrants from non-European countries who had come under labour recruitment schemes increasingly settled permanently, as returning to their home country for long periods now entailed a significant risk of losing their residence permit. Abel, G. J., & Sander, N. (2014). 202-266-1940 | fax. This chapter outlines the general developments of migration within and towards Europe as well as patterns of settlement of migrants since the 1950s. Finally it is crucial to realize that categorization of migrants into certain migration motives is rather difficult as very often multiple different reasons overlap (see, e.g., Gilmartin and Migge 2015; Santacreu et al. However, the information and level of detail is not yet comparable across countries (for an overview of databanks and limitations, see Raymer et al. This goal is still reflected in a number of national programmes today, for example, in Denmark, Germany, Sweden, and the UK. 1 of this volume, namely migrants themselves. Local workers could not fill the vacancies, as labour reservoirs were limited. Their dependants are also entitled to move with them. After all, family reunification of migrant workers was considered a fundamental right, anchored in article 19 of the European Social Charter of 1961. Guest editorial on meeting and mating across borders: Union formation in the European Union single market. These controls on the entrance of foreigners went hand in hand with increased irregular migration (Bade, We first analyse general trends in migration towards Europe, based on new estimates of global migration flows by Abel and Sander (, Looking at the top-15 countries of origin of newly arrived immigrants in 2009 and 2012, we find large numbers of migrants from India and China, followed by Morocco and Pakistan (Table, In addition to the data on newly arriving immigrants (flow statistics), it is also relevant to know the main countries of origin of non-European migrants residing in the EU (stock statistics). In terms of the arriving population, humanitarian refuge and family reunification are the main channels of immigration in Sweden, which explains the large share of non-European migrants (Fredlund-Blomst 2014). The process for developing, implementing, and reviewing legislation has failed to ensure coherent, robust outcomes. Vilar, J. During this third period, integration issues became a central policy concern (see Doomernik & Bruquetas in this volume). Increases seem to be more modest in other EU countries, such as Austria (33.6 %), Finland (17.1 %), the Netherlands (53.7 %), and Sweden (30.2 %) (ibid.). Figure. Seeking asylum in Europe. During this time North-Western European governments increasingly restricted migration, and migrants’ main route of entrance became family reunification and family formation. However, reasons for origin countries to support emigration went beyond the economic. Development of this dichotomy has important consequences for the lives of individual migrants and for social cohesion. Contrasting these cases, for which we have detailed information, suggests the diversity of migration flows and motives within Europe. Nekby, L. (2006). In M. Poulain, N. Perrin, & A. Singleton (Eds.). However we know from archaeological and palaeontological evidence that the area now known as Britain has been inhabited for almost one million years. Their geographical location at the borders of Europe might explain this pattern, as these countries receive immigrants from neighbouring (non-European) countries and function as transit countries. As a result, West Germany reoriented its recruitment towards elsewhere. Th… The history of immigration quotas . Lastly, migration is often not limited to moving from Country A to Country B but may involve several successive destinations. Since then the number of irregular arrivals on this route has greatly reduced thanks to close cooperation between the EU and Turkey. In the first decade of the twenty-first century, new asylum applications followed the conjuncture of admission restrictions and numbers of violent conflicts (ibid.). Initially, geographical proximity played an important role in the development of specific migration flows. Migration Policy Institute Europe, established in Brussels in 2011, is a nonprofit, independent research institute that aims to provide a better understanding of migration in Europe and thus promote effective policymaking. Greece was the last country to transition from an emigration into an immigration country. Not logged in Kleinepier, T., De Valk, H. A. G., & Van Gaalen, R. (2015). The history of the 20th century Europe is characterized by great social, political and economic changes, and the construction of a common European society. 202-266-1940 | fax. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036 | ph. Considering intra-EU mobility of third-country nationals, an upward trend is observed between 2007 and 2011. The restrictions on the entrance of foreigners into North-Western Europe also had another effect. Moreover, European countries are interested in highly skilled migrants in the context of a global competition for talent. (2014). Ryan, L., & Mulholland, J. The 1951 and 1961 data are for overseas-born persons and exclude children born to immigrants in the UK. Castles, S., Booth, H., & Wallace, T. (1984). Different European regions are covered in the analyses, based on available statistics and an analysis of secondary material. European governments became aware that migrant populations were likely to remain on their territory, and they slowly began to develop integration policies. Statistics on international migration flows. Figure, We start with characteristics of those who move. However, Britain is not leaving Europe and there will remain s… The new consensus still privileges the restrictive function of immigration policy. On the demand side of international labour mobility: The structure of the German labour market as a causal factor of seasonal Polish migration. The relationship between life course and migration becomes more apparent when we compare migrants from Romania and those from the UK residing in Spain (Fig. From 2006 onwards, however, asylum applications rose due to the conflicts in Afghanistan, Iraq, and more recently, the Arab Spring. 2011). Levrau, F., Piqueray, E., Goddeeris, I., & Timmerman, C. (2014). 2015; Nekby 2006). Others, such as the Algerian harkis (auxiliaries in the French colonial army) in France, Asian Ugandans in Britain, and a substantial share of Surinamese in the Netherlands, arrived during or after independence (ibid.). This research was part of and supported by the European Research Council Starting Grant project (no. European East-West migration, 1945–1992. Third-country nationals, moreover, move to geographically close countries, for example, from Germany and Italy to Austria, from Estonia and Sweden to Finland, from the Czech Republic and Germany to Poland, from Austria and the Czech Republic to Slovakia, and from Denmark and Germany to Sweden (ibid.). Southern Europe thus became an attractive destination for non-European migrants, especially those from North Africa, Latin America, Asia, and—after the fall of the Iron Curtain—Eastern Europe (Castles et al. Many European countries stepped up attempts to attract highly skilled or educated migrants. The collapse of the Iron Curtain and the opening of the borders of Eastern Europe induced new migration flows across Europe. Other destination countries such as Belgium, the Netherlands, France, and Switzerland followed, also signing labour migration agreements with these countries in the 1960s. Where generally circular and return migration of intra-EU movers is high, this seems especially so for those who are young, single, and do not have children (see, e.g., Bijwaard 2010; Braun and Arsene 2009; Kleinepier et al. The historical overview presented here stems from a comprehensive literature study, complemented by an analysis of available statistical data for trends in the last decade. Penninx, R. (2006). Münz, R., & Ulrich, R. (1998). Evolution of regional patterns of international migration in Europe. In addition, this distinction into different periods enables us to appreciate the current and ongoing political and public debates on migration in Europe. Hansen, R. (2003). (1984, 87–88) for detailed sources, Notes: Figures for all countries except the UK are for foreign residents. The European Union is an area of protection for people fleeing persecution or serious harm in their country of origin. 2014, 229). It was characterized by a cessation of guest worker migration and stringent entry restrictions for new migrants. Non-EU nationals were evenly split between men and women (ibid.). We therefore investigate the demographic characteristics of those who move within Europe, focusing on selected cases and the period 2008–2011. The number of foreign residents kept rising, due to a change in European migration systems from circular to chain migration and the related natural growth of migrant populations. 1. In E. Recchi & A. Favell (Eds.). After the migration stop, countries increasingly controlled entries of foreigners, and migration became an important topic in national political and public debates (Bonifazi 2008; see also Doomernik & Bruquetas in this volume). Quantifying global international migration flows. Others followed: Germany in 1973 and the Benelux and France in 1974. Half of them returned in the period after the oil crisis (ibid.). Portugal, in contrast, experienced return migration from its former colonies, where fierce and violent struggles for independence were under way. Based on these numbers, we can discern several groups. But immediate attention in Europe is likely to shift back to more conventional labour-shortage recruitment. Both may shift in the course of time. France - France - Immigration: Intermittently, at least since about 1830 and rather steadily from 1850, there has been a substantial flow of immigrant population into France. Besides migration between Eastern Europe and several other EU countries, migration flows have been considerable between the UK, France, and Spain. In R. Penninx, M. Berger, & K. Kraal (Eds.). Note, however, that these data by nationality do not include all foreign-origin European residents (meaning those born abroad or having a foreign-born parent), as they cover only those who did not hold the nationality of the country they resided in. At the end of this period, most migrants in North-Western Europe originated from Algeria, Greece, Italy, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Tunisia, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. The distinguished periods may help us to structure and understand the socio-demographic situations which migrants face today. Moreover, it should be noted that these categories report only the main migration motive as captured in the official statistics. In 1992, the UK joined other EU nations in signing the Maastricht Treaty on European integration. In sum, although it is often assumed that linear migration trajectories between two countries are less common now (see, e.g., Pieke et al. It paves the way for monetary union and includes a chapter on social policy. To the latter group is comprised of Finland, Italy, Portugal, in recent years, the,. Remain on their territory, and xenophobia towards certain “ visible ” groups of resident migrants Poulain, M. (. Albert, M. Berger, & Miller, M. 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