The soil was on the brink of freezing beneath the residue, but it still had some give. All content copyright © 2019 Pennington Seed, Inc. All Rights Reserved. On December 20, 2006, I joined Dave and Owen Maguire of the farm operations crew in filling the grain box of the Tye stubble drill with vetch seed and rode out into the barren winter field. As temperatures gradually warm and days lengthen, seeds begin to absorb moisture, and the new seedlings grow rapidly as growing degree day units increase. Vetch lacks grazing tolerance and it is best utilized in rotational grazing. Region: Crimson Clover: Hairy Vetch: Austrian Winter Pea: Cahaba White Vetch: Mountains: Not adapted: Preferred dates: August 10 to September 15: Possible dates: August 10 to September 15: Piedmont: August 25 to October 1: August 25 to October 15: August 25 to October 1: Not adapted: Coastal plain: Preferred dates Inoculant: Unless pre-inoculated, hairy vetch seed must be inoculated with selected Rhizobia strains (strain C) of bacteria just prior to planting for optimal root nodulation and nitrogen fixation. 3. Seed produced in northern states was grown in and survived the colder conditions and therefore has a higher likelihood of winter-hardiness. Hairy vetch is valuable for use in no-till systems. Do not include brassicas or hairy vetch, because October 15 is past their optimum planting time (see the Midwest Cover Crop Council website below for further reading). Hairy vetch Vicia villosa 0.25 -0.5 15 -20 09/01 - 10/15 09/01 - /1000 sq. For best results, plant 3-6 weeks prior to the average first killing frost. and consumer education. Hairy vetch showed higher plant phosphorus (P) concentrations than crimson clover, red clover or a crimson/ryegrass mixture in aTexas trial.Soil under hairy vetch also had the lowest level of P remaining after growers applied high amounts of poultry litter prior to vegetable crops (121). per 1000 sq. Table 1. It is best used in mixtures with cool season annual grasses and clovers. Growing hairy vetch in gardens is easy enough. When the seed does germinate, it depletes its energy reserves, and is unlikely to survive prolonged periods of freezing once its first shoot emerges. Flowers in 4-inch-long racemes on long peduncles arising from leaf axils, with 10–30 flowers of the pea type all turned to one side of stalk, in varying colors: rich lavender, purple, violet, or white. Since rye should not be sown before August 15, rye and vetch should be drilled together August 20 to 30. TYPE: Cool season reseeding annual legume. Hairy vetch is ideal ahead of A minimum of 50% full sunshine is essential for a healthy and productive food plot. Germination is once and done forever, the seed’s instinctual flying leap from the safety of dormancy to inject its new life into the world. /1000 sq. Morning sun is better than afternoon sun for summer game food plots. Hairy Vetch. Because of its sprawling, viney growth habit, hairy vetch can suppress late winter/early spring annual weeds. When selecting a wildlife food plot site, choose an area that is long and narrow with curves or bends in it. Barley was close behind. To plant hairy vetch, plow the soil as you would for any regular crop. As a cover crop prior to a food plot planting of corn, millet or grain sorghum to supply organic nitrogen and improve soil tilth and productivity. Hairy vetch is one of the most winter hardy legumes. As an example, hairy vetch varieties can vary widely in survivability as it relates to the planting date. 2. Results from the 2006-2007 trial, however, showed us that farmers would almost certainly be better off using the dormant seeding approach, with all its risks, rather than waiting until spring and gambling on potentially un-plant-able fields to seed the vetch in time. While possible to spring plant, HV is best planted in late summer to early fall, or early winter for a dormant seeding. If planted in a mixture with small grains, apply 400 lbs. AU Early Cover provides an alternative for Maryland growers that desire a legume cover crop that flowers earlier than common hairy vetch. Cover crops Kill date effects on vetch-rye mixtures are not known, Planting date 16 Sept. 1988 22 Sept. 1988 Tillage Moldboard plow Moldboard plow but yield and N content would probably increase from early to late spring, as has been shownfor each compo- Seeding rates, -~ vetch-rye, kg ha nent separately. /acre 0-20-20 (7 lbs. If farmers miss the critical window for planting hairy vetch (typically 40 to 50 days before the first killing frost, or mid-August to mid-September here in Berks County, Pennsylvania), the data shows that dormant seeding may be their next best bet. For example, a planting date of October 15 will be good for cereal rye, winter wheat and triticale. The vetch winterkilled at the August 1 planting date, so the biomass is made up of rye only at this date. ft.) when planted in mixtures. 2015. When developing food plots, a good rule of thumb is to plant 2.5 to 7 acres of food plots for every 100 acres of habitat. When planted at an optimum date, 1112 and 1350 GDD were required for AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch, respectively, to reach 50% flowering. 5. As a research intern at the Rodale Institute in 2006, I was lucky to be part of a dormant seeding trial using, creatively, the winter annual cover crop hairy vetch. Apply fertilizer just prior to seeding. And if it is okay, should I soak the seeds in warm water for 24 hours prior to planting? Avoid grazing seed pods due to toxicity. Production. Seed mixes containing small seeded legumes and forbs should not be seeded deeper than ¼ inch. In a mixture, 50 pounds of rye and … Seeding Rate: 30 lbs. In order to determine optimum spring kill date and corn fertilizer N (FN) rates, hairy vetch was killed early April, late April, or mid‐May, followed by three corn planting dates and … The stems, which generally branch from near the base, are on an average from two to three feet high, angular and more or less hairy. information. Planting Depth (in.) Dormant seeding is indeed a risk, and like any other planting event it takes careful planning and attention to weather patterns. ft.) or an equivalent nitrogen fertilizer product is sufficient. Both the rye and vetch winterkilled for the July 1 planting. Thank you for your feedback. Good soil moisture at the time of planting, but no rain for about 12 days after planting. Every successful food plot begins with a soil test. If practical, apply lime a minimum of 3 months before planting. 1. HV is often planted with cereal rye, oats or other winter grains for improved winter survivability, greater winter annual weed control, and increased erosion control. per acre (11 oz. 2* Planting Date (Prepared seedbed or no till) Overseed Remarks Caley pea Lathyrus hirsutus 0.25 -0.5 35 09/15 - 11/30 09/15 - 11/30 Low bloat potential, high percentage of hard seed. ft.). It’s (Almost) Never Too Late to Plant Hairy Vetch, Rodale Institute’s Farmer Training (RIFT), Comparison of Substrate Utilization Assay and Fatty Acid Analysis of Soil Microbial Communities, Nodulation of Leguminous Crops Greater in Organic Systems, Overcoming Weed Management Challenges in Cover Crop–Based Organic Rotational No-Till Soybean Production in the Eastern United States. It can provide sufficient N for many vegetable crops, partially replace N fertilizer for corn or cotton, and increase cash crop N efficiency for higher yield. Fits many systems. Due to the vining, climbing habit of the plant, it is often sown in combination with rye so the rye may provide some support. Plots were 1.5 by 6.1 m with four In central Wisconsin or Minnesota, the best time to plant vetch is from July 25 to August 30. Despite the deceptive warmth, growing hairy vetch as it was destined to grow—as a winter annual—would have been risky business. It can be established in fall or spring and makes a great cover crop for nitrogen production and to smother weeds. Biomass comparisons of the three planting dates on June 1, 2007, revealed that fall-planted fared the best, yielding 7016 lbs/acre of dry matter, followed by the December dormant seeded vetch, at 5983 lbs/acre, and spring seeded with 4255 lbs/acre. ♣ Influence of Seeding Ratio, Planting Date, and Termination Date on Rye-Hairy Vetch Cover Crop Mixture Performance Under Organic Management (PDF-Online). But it is probably better than nothing for the farmer who missed their ideal fall seeding window. Farmers often plow it under as a green manure for nitrogen or roll it for the weed-suppressing mulch—a good application for the thick tangle of leguminous tendrils, some reaching 6 or 7 feet in length. Vetch Rye+Clover Rye+Vetch 11/30 Treatments planted on October 2 nd. When mature, our two later crops were weedier than the fall-planted vetch, since the earlier vetch had a few months to put on growth that out-competed contemporaneous weeds. A dormant seed should be just as the name implies throughout the cold months—asleep and inactive beneath soil, residue and snow. /1000 sq. Planting WinterKing hairy vetch can be seeded at a rate of 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the mix or purpose. In some parts of California and the East in Zone 6, hairy … Spend the extra time necessary to properly prepare the soil by plowing, smoothing and firming the ground. Yields range from 1.5 to 3.5 tons/ac. In a mixture with winter annual grasses and annual clovers to extend the productive life of the food plot into early summer. It’s important to provide time for the roots to establish before the ground freezes in winter. The answer was yes and no. Growth correlates with growing degree days (units of average daily temperature compared to a base at which no growth takes place) which are calculated for hairy vetch using a base temperature of 4° C (39.2° F). It is therefore vital that dormant seeding be followed by a consistently cold winter. Amber. This means that hairy vetch should be terminated after May 1 in southern Pennsylvania, after May 10 in central Pennsylvania, and after May 20 in northern Pennsylvania and higher altitudes. Seeding Date: South - Sept. 15 thru Nov. 1; Upper South - Sept. 1 thru Oct. 15; North – Aug. 15 thru Oct. 1. per acre (11 oz. In the absence of a soil test, apply 300 lbs. Seed may be planted into a firm seedbed with a drill equipped with a small seed hopper or broadcasted evenly across the soil surface and covered using a culti-packer or by shallow (1/2 to 1” deep) disking. Hairy vetch has a relatively high P and K requirement and, like all legumes, needs sufficient sulfur and … It's important to inoculate the seed with fresh vetch inoculum just prior to planting. A new approximately 2 to 4 wk later that represented a delayed cultivar of hairy vetch, AU Early Cover, flowers earlier planting date (Table 1). ft.) or equivalent fertilizer in late winter just prior to the spring growth flush of the small grains to boost forage production and extend the browsing period into spring. We no-till drilled hairy vetch into a partially winter-killed stand of fall-planted spring oats. Farmers on the northern plains often have to contend with snowy, icy, or muddy conditions well into the spring, which interferes with timely planting of the year’s crop. Wendy, Hi, I live in southern Indiana, zone 6a and we planted hairy vetch October 10. Planting: cover crop species. Planting on a weed free, smooth and firm seedbed that allows good seed-soil contact is essential for a thick, productive forage stand. Website by Infantree. by The idea behind dormant seeding is to plant when it’s cold enough to inhibit the seed’s germination so that it lies dormant over winter and is ready to germinate when the ground first begins to thaw—but is still too wet to drive through. Liming to a pH of 6.0 – 6.5 and providing adequate soil levels of potassium and phosphorus are necessary to ensure a productive food plot. Residue: 4,000 to 7,000 lb./acre Nitrogen: 90 to 200 lb. Lawson A., C. Cogger, A.Bary, A. Fortuna. Seeding rate: 15 to 20 lb./acre drilled; 25 to 40 lb./acre broadcast. per acre or more nitrogen providing ample quantities needed for its own growth while sharing some with companion forages (when used in mixes). The flowers, borne in a dense one-sided spike, are violet and white to rose colored. (Consult the local University Extension Office for adaptability and planting dates for the region.) As a legume, it fixes 75 lbs. Fall temperatures during the experiment year were warmer than usual, so many time-strapped farmers were calling Dave in October to ask if they could still plant hairy vetch. Hairy vetch is planted in the fall wherever it is grown. Southwest facing slopes are hotter in the summer and tend to dry out faster than bottom land. © 2021 Rodale Institute. Use a cultipacker, log or a light drag to firm the soil after planting. 3 Grazing value based on combination of growth/yield potential, nutritive value, and palatability (1 = poor, 2 = good, 3 = very good, 4 = excellent). Do you mean once the temperatures dip below 39 F at night the plant is done growing for the season, or is it after the temperatures dip below 39 F during the day? The leaves have long, soft hairs with 10 to 20 leaflets borne opposite each other and tendrils at the end. To fix much nitrogen, the hairy vetch should not be terminated too early in the spring (Table 1). Hairy vetch also fixes nitrogen which can be utilized by subsequent crops. 4. /acre 10-10-10 (10 lbs. This taproot will allow the vetch to thrive even in dry conditions. Genevieve Slocum and Dave Wilson. Botanical description: Common Vetch is an annual plant closely related to peas. Seasonal production in the northern part of the state from March to May and in the southern part from November to December and February to April. Successful dormant seeding requires that farmers get seeds in the ground before the ground freezes and winter-long snow cover arrives, but not so early that warm weather coaxes a tender sprout from the ground to face the violent elements of winter before it has a chance to put on adequate growth and energy reserves for survival. Our trial was quite unusual, because we took this practice and applied it to a winter annual, in effect shifting and condensing the vetch’s life cycle to fit our rotation. Most woodland soils have low pH and low fertility. The 'Madison Vetch' variety was developed in Nebraska, and is apparently cold tolerant. All trademarks are either the property of Central Garden & Pet Company, its subsidiaries, divisions, affiliated and/or related companies or the property of their respective owners. per 1000 sq. Ours have sprouted and are about an inch tall consistently throughout the fields. It is normally seeded at 20 to 40 pounds per acre. For example, if cereal rye and hairy vetch are planted in a mixture, the seeding rate of 50 lbs rye (50/65 = 77%) with 9 lb vetch (9/20 = 45%) would be 122%. Hairy vetch is a widely adapted, winter hardy cool-season annual legume that supplies an abundant amount of palatable forage for deer and turkeys and other wildlife in late spring into early summer. N/acre. Ideal seeding depth: ½–1½". Rodale Institute is growing the organic movement through research, farmer training, When used as a winter-annual cover crop and planted during this window in early fall, hairy vetch puts on preliminary growth, goes dormant in seedling form over winter, and blooms the following spring. See your local county extension office for soil sampling assistance. Hairy vetch is a branching, spreading annual that forms a dense ground cover. We suggest you reach out to our Organic Crop Consultant Sam Malriat (Sam.Malriat@RodaleInstitute.org) with your questions. When used as a pasture crop, it can be mixed with small grains or annual ryegrass. per 1000 sq. per acre (5 oz. (Consult the local University Extension Office for adaptability and planting dates for the region.) Rodale Institute is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit. It is excellent when planted as a cover crop ahead of a food plot planting of corn, millet or grain sorghum to supply organic nitrogen and improve soil tilth. Rye started germinating very quickly and some of it was up in 7 days or so. If farmers miss the critical window for planting hairy vetch (typically 40 to 50 days before the first killing frost, or mid-August to mid-September here in Berks County, Pennsylvania), the data shows that dormant seeding may be their next best bet. /1000 sq. This field is for validation purposes and should be left unchanged. Duke (1981) reported that hairy vetch tolerates mean annual temperatures ranging from 4.3-21.1 C, with a mean of 42 cases of 12.0. However, neither dormant seeding nor spring seeding is likely to yield enough biomass for an effective weed-suppressing mulch in a no-till system. It is widely adapted and hardy in the north with snow cover. /acre (3 lbs. For northern farmers who need a more winter-hardy vetch, look for a northern seed tag origin. Took longer for the vetch and clover to germinate. Information on taking a soil test can be obtained from your local county extension office. per acre (5 oz. Vicia villosa. Learn how your comment data is processed. ft.) for pure hairy vetch stands. I’ve been reading your article and I was curious about the growing day temperatures. Some spring cereal varieties are likely to winter-kill if planted in early September, allowing the vetch to grow without competition in spring. Planting dates for selected annual winter legumes. Thank you, This species is known to have a great rooting system, with a tap root that will extend 1 to 3 feet into the soil profile. Common vetch lowers the overall C:N ratio of the mixture, speeding decomposition and decreasing competition from soil bacteria for plant-available N during the early summer growing season. The ideal temperatures for early root growth range from 20° to 25° C (68° to 77° F). This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. We increased the seeding rates for the dormant- and spring-seeded vetch, from the fall rate of 27 lbs/acre to 33.5 lbs/acre. “With a little creativity, hairy vetch can be worked into almost any rotation.”. Earlier plantings are desirable to maximize growth and develop a good root system before cold weather. 6. Dave Wilson, my supervisor at the time and encyclopedia for all things agronomic, got the idea for dormant seeding from hearing stories of farmers in North Dakota who used the practice to get a head start on planting spring wheat, since conditions for driving a tractor in a northern spring can be quite tricky, often excessively wet and muddy. , Wendy, Hi, I live in southern Indiana, Zone and. Know it was destined to grow—as a winter annual—would have been risky business Sam Malriat Sam.Malriat... Seeding Depth: ¼ - ½ inch ( stand failures will result from seed planted too shallow or deep! 10-40 lbs/acre depending on the mix or purpose requires no commercial nitrogen fertilizer months before planting time for the.. Probably better than nothing for the region. ) or an equivalent fertilizer hairy vetch planting date 1 ton/acre ag (! And that was the first average frost date in your area and at! Desirable to hairy vetch planting date growth and develop a good root system before cold weather production and smother... Hairs with 10 to 20 lb./acre drilled ; 25 to 40 lb./acre broadcast killing frost seedbed by plowing, and. 1981 ) also recounted briefly the history of hairy vetch requires no commercial nitrogen.. Early in the north with snow cover 15 to 20 leaflets borne opposite each and. Of freezing beneath the residue, but no rain for about 12 days after planting late to... By 6.1 m with four by Genevieve Slocum and Dave Wilson hardy.... Test will tell you how much fertilizer and lime can be utilized by subsequent crops spring early. Before August 15, rye and … Table 1 ) growth habit, hairy vetch, vetch. 68° to 77° F ) 3 ) nonprofit be planted from early September to mid-November depending. Low pH and low fertility and inactive beneath soil, residue and.... ( Consult the local University Extension Office for adaptability and planting dates for the following crop and. % full sunshine is essential for a thick, productive forage stand on March 17?..., so the biomass is made up of rye only at this date deceptive warmth, growing hairy in!, look for a dormant seeding be followed by a consistently cold winter neither dormant seeding is indeed a,... Depth: ¼ - ½ inch ( stand failures will result from seed planted too shallow or deep... Probably better than nothing for the July 1 planting date likely to winter-kill if planted in mixture. To our Organic crop Consultant Sam Malriat ( Sam.Malriat @ RodaleInstitute.org ) with questions. C. Cogger, A.Bary, A. Fortuna 10-40 lbs/acre depending on location free smooth. Vetch has the potential to withstand temperatures in excess of 5F with cover! 20 lb./acre drilled ; 25 to August 30 long, soft hairs with 10 to 20 drilled! C ) ( 3 ) nonprofit Treatments planted on October 2 nd viable day planting. From early September, allowing the vetch but also plenty of dense biomass for effective! And are about an inch tall consistently throughout the cold months—asleep and inactive beneath,... A more winter-hardy vetch, from the fall rate of seeding: hairy... 40 pounds per acre it can be applied during this step to incorporate it the. Growing up to 3 feet long suppress late winter/early spring annual weeds of seeding: Inoculated hairy vetch is in. To 40 pounds per acre field is for validation purposes and should be just the!: 90 to 200 lb firm seedbed by plowing, smoothing and firming the ground freezes in winter is than! 27 lbs/acre to 33.5 lbs/acre biomass for weed suppression in Zone 6, vetch! The biomass is made up of rye only at this date than afternoon sun for summer game food.! Best utilized in rotational grazing: 4,000 to 7,000 lb./acre nitrogen: 90 to 200 lb 45 days before frost... To peas higher likelihood hairy vetch planting date winter-hardiness dense one-sided spike, are violet white. Plowing and dragging the soil as you would for any regular crop …! Least 30 days before the first average frost date in your area can only be known with personal or. An area that is long and narrow with curves or bends in it date so., Hi, I live in southern Indiana, Zone 6a and we planted hairy vetch July planting. Hairy vetch has the potential to withstand temperatures in excess of 5F no! Is best used in mixtures with cool season annual grasses and annual clovers to extend productive. © 2019 Pennington seed, Inc. all Rights Reserved Plan B and.! A mixture with small grains, apply 300 lbs into the soil to 73.4° )... 11/30 Treatments planted on October 2 nd with no cover result from seed planted too or. Planted in late spring into early summer than afternoon sun for summer game food plots cereal. Game food plots cold months—asleep and inactive beneath soil, residue and snow the ground in!, residue and snow an excellent seed crop that flowers earlier than common hairy vetch seed be. For adaptability and planting dates for the July 1 planting in warm for. Biomass is made up of rye and … Table 1 by plowing, smoothing and firming the ground has! Lawson A., c. Cogger, A.Bary, A. Fortuna and some of it destined... Game food plots 1 planting date: 15 to 20 lb./acre drilled ; to. Soil after planting enough biomass for weed suppression of hairy vetch also fixes nitrogen which can applied. Tare, spring vetch allowing the vetch to grow without competition in spring a great cover crop attracts... Day for planting, HV is best used in mixtures with cool season annual and. Average first killing frost in and survived the colder conditions and therefore a! Feet long in a mixture with winter annual grasses and annual clovers to extend the productive life the! Prior to the planting date 20° to 25° C ( 59° to 73.4° F ) prepare a,! After seeding ensures good seed/soil contact and improves stand emergence ¼ inch is. Growing the Organic movement through research, farmer training, and consumer education,,. Ph and low fertility South, hairy vetch can be applied during this to. Seed/Soil contact and improves stand emergence the dormant- and spring-seeded vetch, plow soil! This step to incorporate it into the soil was on the brink of freezing beneath the,! No commercial nitrogen fertilizer training, and is apparently cold tolerant product is sufficient free, smooth and seedbed... Months—Asleep and inactive beneath soil, residue and snow 15, rye and … Table 1 variety developed... Common vetch, from the fall wherever it is okay, should I soak the seeds in water! The leaves have long, soft hairs with 10 to 20 leaflets borne opposite each and! The fields in the north with snow cover the use of a soil,!, Hi, I live in southern Indiana, Zone 6a and we planted hairy vetch has the to... Second application of 400 lbs rodale Institute is a feasible Plan B some.... It turns out that dormant seeding nor spring seeding is indeed a risk, and is apparently cold.... The time of planting, but it still had some give temperatures in excess of 5F with no.... For 24 hours prior to planting C ( 59° to 73.4° F ) ideal fall seeding.. Soil was on the brink of freezing beneath the residue, but it is normally at! Days or so grazing tolerance and it is widely adapted and hardy the! And are about an inch tall consistently throughout the fields cold winter forms a dense ground.. And vetch should not be sown before August 15, rye and vetch winterkilled at the three mowing.. Nor spring seeding is indeed a risk, and is apparently cold tolerant with small grains, apply a! Ensures good seed/soil contact and improves stand emergence legume, hairy vetch seed can be drilled at a of! Sam Malriat ( Sam.Malriat @ RodaleInstitute.org ) with your questions risk, and like any planting! Risky business result in stand failure ’ ve been reading your article and I was curious about the day! Range from 20° to 25° C ( 59° to 73.4° F ) more winter than. Than nothing for the region. a higher likelihood of winter-hardiness okay, should I soak the seeds in water... A pasture crop, and is apparently cold tolerant Tare, spring.... Winter-Hardy vetch, plow the soil as you would for any regular crop may require additional hairy vetch planting date manure! This provides a sense of comfort and safety for wildlife vary widely in as. Herb with climbing stems growing up to 3 feet long be worked into almost any rotation..... Dense ground cover mixed with small grains or annual ryegrass safety for wildlife quickly and some of it was to!: common vetch is a feasible Plan B 40 pounds per acre ft. or... With four by Genevieve Slocum and Dave Wilson this provides a sense of comfort and safety for wildlife very and... 2 reports the total biomass accumulation for the farmer who missed their ideal fall window! Than bottom land allowing the vetch to grow without competition in spring 7,000 lb./acre nitrogen: 90 to lb... See your local county Extension Office opposite each other and tendrils at the August planting.
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